Table of Contents


The online Freedom Center (FC) aims to increase awareness and understanding of freedom of religion, conscience and belief by gathering, generating and sharing knowledge in an open, freely accessible and trusted digital resource. By using the FC you accept and agree to abide by the following terms and conditions:

FC Content is Freely Available to the Public

  • The FC makes its content and website available to you under different rules, depending on what you are doing with the content and website.
  • The FC welcomes you to visit and use its website subject to these Terms of Use.
  • The FC invites your reuse of or linking to the content on the FC as described in the Copyright and Linking Policy section. The FC  is committed to clearly crediting the sources of the information on the FC and urges its visitors to cite and visit the original sources.
  • The FC  invites members to provide feedback via the Contact Form.
  • The FC is committed to building an open-access collection. In short, all information you share with the FC must also be shared with the rest of the world under at least one of the Creative Commons licenses that allow re-use. The exception to this requirement is the category of copyrighted material that does not reside on the FC servers but rather on non-FC servers so designated by the content owners. Policies guiding usage of that external content is set by the individual content owners. Please read the Copyright and Linking Policy section for more information.
  • The FC reserves the right to moderate submitted content as described in the Community Conditions. The FC members will be offered the ability to flag the FC content as inappropriate or in need of improvement.


Linking is an important feature that facilitates searching and making connections among websites. The FC invites linking as described in the Copyright and Linking Policy section.


By using this site, you agree that the FC may collect, use and disclose information that you provide as described in the Privacy Policy page.


  • Certain names, titles, trademarks, service marks, and logos that appear on the FC are registered or common law (unregistered) marks owned by the FC consortium members, the FC content providers, or third parties. With the exception of fair use, you may not use such trademarks without the owner’s prior written permission. Nothing on the FC shall be construed as granting any license to use any trademark displayed on the FC without the express written permission of the owner of the trademark.
  • If you have any complaints or objections to content posted on the FC because it was not properly credited or it was posted without permission and you are the copyright or trademark owner, please contact the FC at and provide your contact information, a working link to the relevant content on the FC, a statement that you are the copyright owner or the owner’s agent, and links or other evidence supporting your claim of ownership.
  • The Content is provided “as is,” without a warranty of any kind, either expressed or implied, including but not limited to the implied warranties of merchantability, fitness for a particular use, and/or non-infringement. The FC shall not be responsible or liable for any damage that may occur due to your use of the FC or downloading any Content from the FC.
  • The FC reserves the right to change these Terms of Use from time to time without notice; changes shall be effective upon posting. Please check back regularly for updates. Failure of the FC to enforce any of these terms shall not constitute a waiver of such terms.
By using the FC, you represent and warrant that your use will be consistent with these Terms of Use, including fair use. You agree to indemnify, defend and hold the FC harmless from all claims, causes of action, allegations, costs, expenses, fees (including reasonable attorneys’ fees), judgments, liabilities, losses, and damages arising from or relating to your use of the FC. These Terms of Use and any amendments or revisions shall be governed by applicable federal law and the laws of the District of Columbia, without regard to its conflict of laws principles. Any case, controversy, suit, action, or proceeding arising out of, in connection with, or related to these Terms of Use shall be brought in the appropriate federal court. January 2020, updated February 2020.


The Freedom Center welcomes you to re-use the content you find on according to the conditions described below. By using, you accept and agree to abide by the following conditions:


Linking is an important feature that facilitates searching and making connections among websites. The FC encourages the use of hyperlinks on other web sites directing visitors to the FC home page or any other web page on the FC site. Such links shall not imply or infer that your organization, its products or services are endorsed by the FC. Permission is not necessary. If you know the page you wish to link to or you can find it via a search mechanism, simply copy the URL from your browser in order to make the hyperlink. The FC may link to third party sites that are not under the control of the FC. These links are provided as a convenience and for informational purposes only; they do not indicate the FC’s endorsement, sponsorship of, or affiliation with the third party or content of the linked website, including any advertisements that may be posted. The FC has no control over, makes no representation or warranty and bears no responsibility for the accuracy, legality or content of  externally linked sites. For more information on linking to the FC from your website, see these instructions.

Using Content from the Freedom Center’s Website

Content available on this site has been provided by the FC’s partner content providers and other sources of IRF-related material, who may have placed restrictions on how you can re-use that content. Please note that a single page may be made up of many different data elements, each covered by a different license. You are required to check to see which license applies to any portion(s) of the page you wish to re-use and to abide by any restrictions on that content. Except where otherwise noted (e.g., in the case of externally linked copyrighted material), the content provided on the FC and that resides in FC servers are licensed under Creative Commons protocols. The Creative Commons has set up a robust, free, easy-to-use set of protocols by which content owners can easily mark their creative work with the freedoms or restrictions that they want the information to carry. In most cases, the FC content providers have made content available for re-use under one of the following Creative Commons licenses:
  • CC0 (No Rights Reserved)—CC0 (occasionally written as CC Zero) is a public domain dedication that allows copyright holders to place works in the public domain to the extent legally possible, worldwide.
  • CC-BY (Attribution), which allows users to copy, transmit and reuse the information, and to remix or adapt the information, as long as attribution regarding the source of the information is maintained.
  • CC-BY-SA (Attribution-ShareAlike), which has the additional constraint on top of CC-BY that if you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same, similar or a compatible license.
  • CC-BY-NC (Attribution-NonCommercial), which has the additional constraint on top of CC-BY that you may not use this work for commercial purposes.
  • CC-BY-NC-SA (Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike) has the additional constraint on top of CC-BY that if you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same, similar or a compatible license and that you may not use this work for commercial purposes.
  • CC BY-NC-ND (Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs) is the most restrictive of the six main CC licenses, only allowing others to download the owner’s works and share them with others as long as they credit the owner, but they can’t change them in any way or use them commercially.
In the cases where content is not made available under a Creative Content license, the material is probably within the Public Domain or has its use restricted according to Copyright laws:
  • Public Domain—The public domain refers to works whose intellectual property rights have expired, been forfeited, or are inapplicable. Informally, public domain refers to works that are publicly available; the formal definition states that it refers to works which are intangible to private ownership or are available for public use.
  • Copyright—Several exclusive rights typically attach to the holder of a copyright:
    • to produce copies or reproductions of the work and to sell those copies (including, typically, electronic copies)
    • to import or export the work
    • to create derivative works (works that adapt the original work)
    • to perform or display the work publicly
    • to sell or assign these rights to others
    • to transmit or display by radio or video
License information is associated with data and media objects in the FC. To obtain this information for image and other media objects, the license data can be found alongside the media object or by clicking on the media object to view the object page associated with it. For non-media objects, this information can be found alongside the object or by clicking on the provider link associated with the objects. It may be necessary to click on a media “thumbnail” images to the underlying media object, and from there to the dedicated object page, in order to view the license information in its entirety. Certain objects, including maps, contain links to terms of use associated with those objects. Please refer to them for additional licensing details. If you wish to re-use any content for purposes other than those allowed by the associated Creative Commons license, you must get permission to do so from the copyright holder. If there is no re-use information associated with an item, then there are no re-use restrictions on this content. However, if you find content that is labeled with an incorrect license or, particularly in the of copyrighted content, is missing the appropriate license, please contact the FC development team and the content contributor will be contacted to supply or correct the associated license information. In the case of contested content licenses where a correct license is not obtained, the content will be removed from the FC.


Citing the FC and FC Content. These citations use slight modifications of Turabian Scientific Style, as formatted by The University of Chicago Press.

To cite the FC site as a whole: Freedom Center. Available from Accessed 15 July 2019.

To cite data downloaded from the FC: If you use the FC as a data source for an academic paper, please be sure to cite the original source of the data and any references that are provided to support individual values. For most data records, citations and references will be included in the data download file.

Citing the FC as the data supplier is appreciated but not required.

To cite an FC article: As with most web pages, FC pages change over time, and different versions of the FC pages are not archived. Therefore, you should only cite individual articles rather than an entire FC page. We recommend you only cite information that has been Trusted. The provider of an article may have provided a suggested citation. Alternatively, you can build a citation using the information provided on the article’s page. Include the author, the year of the latest revision (under Revisions in the right sidebar), the object title, the original source, the date you viewed it, and the FC data object URL, e.g.:

Smith, B. 2018. “[Title of this Paper.]” In [Name of Book]. Accessed 17 Mar 2019, available from the Freedom Center,…

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